The Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological
Trust Historic Environment Record
following information has been provided under the terms and conditions
of access as detailed on GGAT’s website www.ggat.org.uk.
Copyright is reserved on all data supplied by the GGAT HER Charitable Trust.
All output resulting from the use of the data must acknowledge the source
from information held by the GGAT HER Charitable Trust copyright.
data below is intended to be used for information and research only and
is not for use as part of a commercial project. If you wish to use
information derived from material held by the GGAT HER Charitable Trust
for publication in printed or multimedia form or to compile resources for
commercial use, prior permission must be obtained in writing. For further
information or to arrange a visit to the Trust please send an enquiry form
PENRHOS MOTTE AND BAILEY CASTLE
Primary Reference Number (PRN) : 01543g Trust : Glamorgan Gwent Community : Llantilio Crossenny Unitary authority : Monmouthshire NGR : SO40941321 Site Type (preferred type first) : Medieval Motte and bailey Status : Scheduled Monument
Summary : Moated tumulus 173ft in diameter at its base. N and S 'half-moon' banks also moated, and a trench or hollow way issues from its W side and winds round to the N. Little trace of bailey to N.
Description : Moated tumulus 173ft in diameter at its base. N and S 'half-moon' banks also moated, and a trench or hollow way issues from its W side and winds round to the N. Little trace of bailey to N. A castle of Penrhos is mentioned in a patent of 1261, and a year later William de Cantalupe was pardoned for having demolished the Castle of Penrose that belonged to John de Monmouth. This castle may have been on these earthworks.
Phillips notes that key features of Penrhos Castle, overlooking the River Trothy, include an unusually designed motte (top surface area of 135.449m) with an earthen mound surrounded by a ditch and rampart with no evidence of a bailey. Phillups interprets the site as possibly holding a watch tower due to its small size, and also notes that it has little in the way of natural defences. It is thought that the mound has been re-shaped from a site of an undetermined date, and suggests that the castle was built in 1248 (Phillips 2004).
Olding notes that the 1261 Patent Roll entry is non-existent. The castle is first mentioned 26th September 1248 and it was attacked and captured by William de Cantilupe twice (1248 and 1251) is mention that it was 'caused to be thrown down' in 26th June 1253. (Olding 1998)
Olding, F , 1998 , Penrhos Castle, Monmouthshire, SMR Enhancement: M.A. Landscape Archaeology
Phillips, N. , 2004 , Thesis: Earthwork Castles of Gwent and Ergyng AD 1050 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ 1250
06/PM Map/Rees W/1932/South Wales & Border in C14th/SE Sheet
07/PH Desc Text/Wakeman T/1860/Antiquarian Excursions/pp56-7
08/MM Photo/GGAT/Lewis W/1979-80
05/PM Mention/Bradney JA/1911-14/History of Monmouthshire/volII p97
09/MM Desc Text/Cadw/Whittle E/1987/AM107
01/PM Record Card/OS/1972/SO 41 SW 1
03/PM Mention/Bradney JA/1907/History of Monmouthshire/volI p147
10/MM Desc Text/Cadw/1992/AM107
02/PH Desc Text/1855/Arch Camb/3rd series volI p15
04/PM Desc Text/1909/Arch Camb/6th series volIX pp138,266-7
11/Mm AP Gazeteer/2004 January/Sorrell J/Aerial Archaeological Photographs of Gwent/SMR
Events : E004063 : Earthwork Castles of Gwent and Ergyng AD 1050 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ 1250 (year : 2004) E002191 : Penrhos Castle, M.A. Landscape Archaeology, DBA (year : 1998)