The Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust
Historic Environment Record

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Y Bwlwarcau

Primary Reference Number (PRN) : 00116m
Trust : Glamorgan Gwent
Community : Llangynwyd Middle
Unitary authority : Bridgend
NGR : SS83888855
Site Type (preferred type first) : Iron Age Hillfort
Status : Scheduled Monument

Summary :
Innermost enclosure is pentagonal, area about 0.3 ha, protected by a substantial bank, ditch & counterscarp bank about 18m wide overall; entrance in the E.

Description :
Innermost enclosure is pentagonal, area about 0.3 ha, protected by a substantial bank, ditch & counterscarp bank about 18m wide overall; entrance in the E.

Y Bwlwarcau discussed further by Sir Cyril and Lady Fox. The fort stands at about 300m above OD on a broad spur of Mynydd Margam about 2km W of Llangynwyd. The remains are of a defended enclosure roughly concentric, with slighter banks which protect a much larger area. Probably two main periods of construction. A pentagonal inner structure, with an area of 0.2ha is protected by a bank, ditch and counterscarp bank, 18m wide overall, with an simple gap entrance in the E side. The enclosure seems to have been superimposed on an earlier one of twice the size which had similar, but slighter defences and an entrance on the SW, although a main entrance was probable on the E side.
This earlier defence may be associated with a pair of banks and ditches, enclosing an area of 4.4ha, which seem to be little more than boundaries. The inner bank and ditch measure 9m wide and 0.5m high and is interrupted by gaps generally about 1.5m wide, which seem mostly original. The second bank, though much damaged, runs parallel with an intervening space from 6 to 15m wide.
There was an entrance through the surviving bank on the E, connected to the entrance to the central enclosure by a slightly hollow track with a low bank on its S side.
Further to the S on the E side a quadrilateral 'yard' has been formed against the inner boundary-bank, surrounded by a broad shallow ditch in part accompanied by banks on each side. This yard was considered to belong to the adjacent platform-house, by Fox, but the terracing for the latter appears to overlie the ditch. A slight bank and ditch are further W of this 'yard' joining the central enclosure, but this may be part of a later field boundary.
The boundary bank pair seem to have been superseded by bank and ditch 6m wide by 0.6m high enclosing D-shaped area of 7.2ha.
A later house platform about 18m NE-SW by 7.5m exists in the SW corner of the 'yard' and a possible second, smaller platform occupies the site of the E entrance. Old straight field boundaries form polygonal enclosures W of the site (the 'annexe'), and may be contemporary to the platform-houses.
Several later trackways have worn down areas of the site and modern field boundaries have also caused damage. (Wiggins and Evans 2005)

Sources :
Wiggins, H and Evans, E , 2005 , Prehistoric defended enclosures in Glamorgan with recommendations for fieldwork
01/PM List/RCHM//1976/Glam Invent/No.693;
02/MM Record Card/OS//1956/SS 88 NW 39/;
04/PM Desc Text//Savory H.N/1949/Bull Board Celtic Stud/V.13 Pt.3;
06/MM Air Photo/Westair//1979/29157/;
03/PM Desc Text//Fox C&A/1934/Antiquity/Vol.8 p.395-413;
08/MM Letter//Council of the University of Wales//30.05.52/;
09/PM Mention//Brown R.L/1979/Town Cymer Afan Hist Soc/Vol.2 p.3
07/MM Record Card/OS//1976/SS 88 NW 39/;
05/PM Desc Text//Fox Lady A./1952/Archaeol Journal/Vol.109 p.1-22;
03/Desc Text/Cadw/ Full Management Report/2006/ Copy in further information file
03/Desc Text/Cadw/ Full Management Report/2006/ Copy in further information file

Events :
E001455 : Prehistoric defended enclosures in Glamorgan (year : 2005)

Related PRNs : 301303

Compiled date : 01-02-1977

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